了解英国难民政策的演变和改革:2022年国籍和边境法案及其后续

英国在2022年6月28日实施的国籍和边界法法案(NABA)对其移民政策进行了重大改变。该法案的核心是建立一个框架,建立一个两个级别的系统,区分在英国寻求永久居留的两组难民,即「第一组」和「第二组」。

这两组之间的一个主要区别在于其允许居留的时间长度。被归类为第一组的难民通常被授予在英国居留五年的许可,之后可以申请定居。而第二组的难民通常被授予30个月的临时庇护,在经过10年的路线后才能申请定居。

这政策推动的目的是为了打击移民人士以非法途径进入英国,特别是通过犯罪走私者进入英国。这种战略方法在很大程度上取得了成功。然而,随着挑战的范围不断升级,就像其他国家一样,英国政府发现有必要进一步加强边境控制,从而引入了非法移民法案。

这项法案旨在阻止非法进入英国方面设立新的先例。其目标是确保以人道原因进入英国是唯一的安全途径和是合法渠道。该法案提出了一种彻底改革处理非法进入英国者的程序。对于先透过到达安全国家再以非法方式进入英国的人士,他们在涉及其原居国的庇护和人权主张将被视为不可接受,而内政部长亦将有义务将其遣返。这个区分政策最初旨在解决一类以个人冒险且不必要地穿越安全国家寻求在英国庇护的人士。

鉴于这些发展,政府决定在预定于2023年7月进行的移民规则变更中停止这项区分政策。这将意味着在这些规则变更之后,区分难民系统下的分组决策将停止。因此,所有成功获得庇护申请的人士,包括获得人道保护的人,将受到相同的条件约束。然而,对未获批庇护的申请者的遣返能力将不受影响。

内政部将与在2022年6月28日之后根据政策获得「第二组」或人道保护地位的人士联系,将他们的逗留条件进行调整,以符合「第一组」难民的条件,包括允许居留的时间长度、定居路线和家庭团聚资格。

内政部在2023年2月23日宣布了一项新发展。将为一些具有高庇护核准率的国家引入简化庇护处理程序,这些国家包括阿富汗、厄立特里亚、利比亚、叙利亚及也门。该程序主要处理有明显证据的案件,将可以在”免除面试“的情况下,获得移民局对于他们案件的考虑,甚至成功获得难民身份。重要的是,内政部不能在不提供额外的面试机会而拒绝任何庇护申请。该”简化程序“将适用在2022年6月28日至非法移民法案引入之前(即2023年3月7日)申报难民的申请人。这也适用于来自苏丹的申请者。至于苏丹的旧案申请者,将继续按照既定政策和程序处理,以符合首相承诺在2023年底前清除已积压的旧案庇护申请案件。

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